판교박물관

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Exhibition

  • Exhibition for Relics
  • Excavations site and process

Exhibition for Relics

  • Pangyo Museum

    11 Pangyo Museum chamber tombs in Pangyo Historical Park

    In Pangyo district, 11 stone-lined chamber tombs of the Three Kingdoms Period have been excavated. Nine excavated in Pangyo-dong, Bundang-gu, are Baekje chamber tombs estimated to be from late 4C to late 5C. The ceiling is in a transformational vault, and a copper technique has been employed for the walls, making it a burial system of Hanseong Baekje. The stone chamber excavated in Baekhyeon-dong is assumed to be the chamber tomb of the Goguryeo period. In the Hanseong Baekje chamber tomb, hair ornaments, bracelets and rings made of gold, silver and gilt bronze were excavated; hair ornaments have the same form as those found in China and Japan, showing proof of East Asian cultural exchange in the Three Kingdoms Period.The Goguryeo chamber tomb displays an intersecting triangular ceiling method of Goguryeo tombs, indicating southward migration during the Goguryeo period. From the boundaries of the graves of Hanseong Baekje and Goguryeo, it is possible to infer active exchanges with foreign peoples around about the time of the King Geunchogo Period of Baekje. Later, there are indications pointing to the rise and fall of Hanseong Baekje and the southward migration of Goguryeo and the transfer of the Woongjin (Gongju) capital during Baekje.

    9 Baekje chamber tombs

    Tombs 1,2,3,4,7,8 and 9 among the Baekje chamber tombs were restored after being moved from the original sites, while tombs 5 and 6 to were restored on-site. With regard to the Goguryeo chamber tombs, 1 and 2 were restored after relocation. By relocating the chamber tombs and creating a park of relics, the public can visit the relics excavated and investigated in the Pangyo district, so that the materials can be used as exhibition and educational materials as well as future research data.
    In the ancient Baekje tombs, the major axis direction lies at right angles to the contour; the actual plane is rectangular; the years are attached to the right; the walls have been erected by piling up laid cog tooth stones; and they have vaulted ceilings. The are no big differences in terms of size: the smallest, No.3, is 280㎝ long and 170㎝ wide; the largest, No.6, is 318㎝ long and 180㎝ wide; and No.9 is 310㎝ long and 240㎝ wide.
    The tombs other than 5, 6 and 9 have four walls bulging outside, and the lowest stone in the back wall of No.3 is not a regular cog tooth stone but is a single large rectangular stone, which is rather unique. Along with Yeongi Songwon-ri’s square chamber tomb, Pangyo-dong’s rectangular chamber tomb has received attention for its technical similarity to the northwest Korean brick tombs – they are both characterized by the walls bulging out. Raw clay was generally used for the floor, but No.9 has white clay on the floor and walls. By observing the tube wells excavated in all tombs, it can be inferred that wooden coffins were used. It is presumed that about two eople are buried together. The wooden coffin of No.7 is 214~257㎝ long and 57~67㎝ wide.
    Buried earthenware was found in all tombs except No.9, mostly pots such as Dangyeongho and Jikgooho, and also a few of cups and containers are present. The most noticeable items among the buried goods are accessories. From 1,3 ,6,7,9, silver bracelets, silver hairpins, and gold hairpins were excavated. It is noteworthy that accessories were excavated from five out of the nine tombs, because it is not easy for these items to be found in Hanseong Baekje’s stone-lined chamber tombs. This may have something to do with the characteristics or status of the buried persons.
    9 Baekje chamber tombs
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    1 Pangyo Museum
    No.1 Baekje
    chamber tomb
    410×190×150 5 earthenware,
    1 accessory,
    49 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    2 Pangyo Museum
    No.2 Baekje
    chamber tomb
    330×210×110 1 earthenware,
    28 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    3 Pangyo Museum
    No.3 Baekje
    chamber tomb
    450×170×148 7 earthenware,
    11 accessories, 54 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    4 Pangyo Museum
    No.4 Baekje
    chamber tomb
    452×166×100 3 earthenware,
    43 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    5 Pangyo Historical Park
    No.5 Baekje chamber tomb
    (on-site preservation)
    428×353×155 2 earthenware,
    25 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    6 Pangyo Historical Park
    No.6 Baekje chamber tomb
    (on-site preservation)
    429×365×195 4 earthenware,
    2 accessories, 20 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    7 Pangyo Historical Park
    No.7 Baekje chamber tomb
    (on-site preservation)
    579×220×160 2 earthenware, 2 silver bracelets,
    32 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    8 Pangyo Historical Park
    No.8 Baekje chamber tomb
    (on-site preservation)
    490×170×190 2 earthenware, 10 tube wells
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    9 Pangyo Historical Park
    No.9 Baekje chamber tomb
    (on-site preservation)
    530×240×90 1 accessory,
    18 tube wells

    2 Goguryeo chamber tombs

    2 Goguryeo’s stone-lined chamber tombs were excavated and investigated in Baekhyeon-dong, east of the Baekje chamber tombs. In Namsamyeon, 2 Goguryeo’s stone-lined chamber tombs were found. No.1 shares walls as double-room tomb. Big stone layers are used for the walls, piling the lowest stones in layers and piling high with standing stones, with the ceiling having rounded corners. The gaps between the walls are filled with small gravel and lime.
    No. 1-1 room in the west is rectangular and 170㎝ long, 125㎝ wide and 110㎝ high, all with rightward-slanted chimneys. In the chimney of No. 1-1 room, there are 2 rectangular stones used as the ceiling, and the entrance is closed with a 100cm long flagstone used as door tombstone. The floor is made with raw clay, piled with reddish-brown clay 10㎝ thick, with some parts leaving traces of hardening with fire.
    No.2 is rectangular, 185㎝ long, 140㎝ wide, and 120㎝ high. It also has rightward-slanted chimneys. On the other hand, it is different from No.1 in that tube mounts made up of stone layers are installed over the western part of northern wall, the whole western wall, and the western part of southern wall. The double-room tomb and vaulted ceiling display a similarity with ancient Goguryeo Tombs. The ceiling structure of the vault is similar to the ancient Goguryeo Tombs of Bojeong-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, and the leftward-slanted tube mounts in No.2 is the same as the Goguryeo chamber tombs of the Cheonggye district in Hwaseong-si.
    2 Goguryeo chamber tombs
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    10-1 Pangyo Museum No.1-1 Goguryeo chamber tomb(left) 170×125×110 -
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    10-2 Pangyo Museum No.1-2 Goguryeo chamber tomb(right) 190×150×110 -
    No. Name of relic Relic size (㎝)
    Length x width x depth
    Excavated
    artifact
    11 Pangyo Museum No.2 Goguryeo chamber tomb 185×140×120 -
  • Pangyo Park

    5 Relics in Pangyo Neighborhood Park

    A kitchen range was found in the Sampyeong-dong Baekje lot in addition to the Baekje chamber in Pangyo-dong. This is a valuable item to learn about the influence that Hanseong Baekje exerted. Seongnam Pangyo Hanseong Baekje relics start from the Seoul Gangdong area that was known as a castle town, and many relics are found through Tancheon and reach toward Yongin and Hwaseong, providing a greater understanding about the scope of Baekje relics in the capital area. Moreover, economic activities and manufacturing technologies in the Pangyo area of the past can be examined through pottery, roof tiles, and charcoal produced in various kilns from the unified Silla to the Joseon Period and which are relocated and restored in the Pangyo Neighborhood Park.

    • Drawing
    • Baekje lot
    • kitchen range
    • Current appearance
    This is a kitchen range discovered in the western corner of the Baekje lot in Sampyeong-dong (currently around Sampyeong High School). The kitchen range is made with mud turned like a band on the ground, and inside were found deep earthenware (center-cut earthenware) in the shape of a woman’s brass rice bowl. The lot is 237㎝ wide, 296㎝ long, and 39㎝ deep, and inside were found deep earthenware in the shape of a woman’s brass rice bowl as well as beaten earthenware (grid beating earthenware) in bar or lattice patterns.This relic has significance as it clarifies how Baekje culture moved south from Chamsil along Tancheon, and it is evidence that reveals the dwelling and dietary habits of Seongnam at the time.
    • Charcoal kiln foreground
    • Fire hole
    • Furnace entrance
    • Current appearance
    Sasong-dong charcoal kiln (currently Botdul Maeul 1 Danji) no longer has a ceiling, but the plane condition of the combustor, bowl-making chamber, and smoke exhauster is relatively well preserved. The remnant kiln is 355㎝ long, 230㎝ wide and 43㎝ deep. The period in which it existed is estimated to be sometime between the unified Silla and Goryeo. From above, it has a semi-basement structure in an inverted triangular shape, and the combustor is made by digging bedrock, reinforcing the walls by putting rocks on both sides of the entrance. The bowl-making chamber is made flat by digging bedrock downward, and the walls are hardened with heat generated while making charcoal. The smoke exhauster is made up of a passage connecting the round chimney, bowl-making chamber and chimney. No relics were found inside the charcoal kiln. Along with the Dochon-dong charcoal kiln, it is an important relic that shows the economic activities of the Seongnam people of the past.
    • Tile kiln foreground
    • Excavated concave tile
    • Current appearance
    Unjung-dong tile kiln (currently SanunMaeul 5, 8 Danji) is a semi-basement cave kiln (ascending kiln) making a bowl-making chamber using a natural slope. It is extremely unique, with three boal-making chambers in one entrance. When discovered, the ceiling and furnace had collapsed and did not remain. The remaining size of the kiln is 720㎝ long, 640㎝ wide, and 94㎝ deep. The period it emanates from is assumed to be the Joseon period. Judging by the absence of repaired traces in the bowl-making chamber walls, it may not have been used for a long time.The discovered roof tiles are all concave tiles, and ‘大‘-shaped tiles, and tiles with check patterns, fish bone patterns, and complicated patterns were found. It can be seen from the relics discovered in the three bowl-making chambers that each were used in different periods. About 1,000 tiles can be produced in one kiln, so it may have been used to repair large buildings.
    • Earthenware kiln foreground
    • earthenware kiln excavated relics
    • bowl-making chamber entrance
    • Current appearance
    Sasong-dong earthenware kiln (currently Botdul Maeul 1 Danji) has a relatively intact ceiling, combustion chamber, bowl-making chamber, and smoke exhauster. It is an underground cave kiln (ascending kiln), and is thin and long when seen from above. The remnant kiln is 830㎝ long, 160㎝ wide and 125㎝ deep.The combustion chamber had its walls reinforced with rocks and mud with dug-up bedrock. The bowl-making chamber had the bedrock dug in the shape of a cave, with mud applied to the floor, walls, and ceiling. The radient of the floor is steep with 24°, and the walls are reinforced with the thick application of clay, and hardened with heat. From the many signs of reinforcement and repair of the walls, it may have been used for a long time. Most relics were excavated from the floor of owl-making chamber, and they are significant relics showing the manufacturing technologies of earthenware in Seongnam.
    • building site soil stratum
    • building site foreground
    • Current appearance
    Pangyo-dong wall building site (currently PangyowonMaeul 1 Danji) has a square plane and is located on a ridge forming a gentle slope from the top, facing the east. The remnant is 380㎝ long, 370㎝ wide and 70㎝ deep. It is ‘ㄷ’-shaped and open to the west, and the outdoor transition zone was made by piling flat stones, above which the wall is surrounded 20㎝ inside. The wall is cross-layered, filling broken rocks of 15~30㎝ with soil.
    The southern open part has foundation stones in both corners, and a layer of stone threshold in between. In the middle of the stone threshold and the building, there is a building stone evenly polished. This is presumed to be a stone altar for sacrifice. Here, various tiles, iron animal statues, tableware, celadon cups, dishes and other porcelain were excavated. Judging from the form of the remains and excavated relics, this building site is highly likely to have been a place related to ancestral rites; and the size indicates that it may have been a temple used to pray for abundance and the peace of the village. The excavated relics show that it may have been established in the mid-Goryeo period.
  • Naksaengdae Park

    5 relics in Naksaengdae Park

    Stone-lined tombs of Sampyeong-dong and Sasong-dong, and chamber tombs of Pangyo-dong are relics dating from the unified Silla to the Goryeo period. Relics from the unified Silla are evidence that show the importance of Seongnam and nearby areas in the Korean Peninsula during the unification period of the Three Kingdoms, when linked to the relics of Dochon-dong, Jungwon-gu and Namhansanseong, Gwangju. In Baekhyeon-dong, many pit tombs from the Goryeo period were found as well, along with Goryeo white porcelain, celadon, coins, and bronze spoon and chopsticks.

    • chamber tomb
    • excavated relics
    • Current appearance
    Baekhyeon-dong (currently Korea District Heating Corp.) unified Silla No.1 chamber tomb (stone-room tomb) is located on a planation surface 80m above sea level, and was built after destroying the existing lot.
    The plane is intersecting rectangular, with front-placket chamber tomb digging weathered rock pan. The size of the stone room is 380㎝ long, 225㎝ wide and 80㎝ deep, with a maximum 5 layers of the wall. The tomb walls are slate split stones, built by combining the use of cross-layering and piling method.
    The entrance of the tomb is installed on the southern wall toward the east, and small split stones are spread on the floor as a support for the corpse. A piece of belt ornament was excavated from the center, and a partially destructed piece of soft earthenware from under the eastern wall was also excavated.
    • chamber tomb
    • excavated relics
    • Current appearance
    Baekhyeon-dong (currently Korea District Heating Corp.) unified Silla No.2 chamber tomb (stone-room tomb) is located on a planation surface 74m above sea level, and was built after destroying part of the existing remaining hole.
    The plane is intersecting rectangular, dug out from a weathered rock pan. The size of the stone room is 350㎝ long, 225㎝ wide and 80㎝ deep, with a maximum 3 layers. Rectangular split stones are cross-layered from the northern side to the long side in both directions, and the short side of the southern direction.
    The support for corpse is made in two phases from east to west, and from the center of the second support were found 4 pieces of golden belt ornaments, along with a piece of bottle.
    • drawing
    • stone-lined tomb
    • Current appearance
    This relic excavated from Sampyeong-dong (currently Botdul Maeul 4, 6 Danji) is a front-placket stone-lined tomb found first in Seongnam. It is 253㎝ long, 130㎝ wide and 80㎝ deep. The period is assumed to be from the unified Silla to the Goryeo period. The stone-lined tomb used unpolished stones, with 6 layers on the northern wall, 7 layers on the western wall, 6 layers on the eastern wall, and 4 layers on the southern wall. The support for corpse inside the tomb is made of flat stone 15~25㎝ in size over the whole floor. The northern wall and east/western walls are piled first, and then the corpse is pushed inside from the south, and the southern wall was then blocked.
    • Drawing
    • stone-lined tomb
    • excavated relics
    • Current appearance
    Sasong-dong (currently Botdul Maeul 2 Danji) stone-lined tomb is a hole-type stone-lined tomb with no covering stone remaining. The size is 184㎝ long, 155㎝ wide and 93㎝ deep. The period is presumed to be from the unified Silla to the Goryeo period. It is piled in the order of the western wall, northern wall, eastern wall and southern wall, with the first layer piled in a cross-laying style, then using small rocks from the second layer. Small rocks are used to fixate the walls or line them, and the walls are filled with clay. From the corpse strut inside the stone-lined tomb, a piece of bronze belt ornament was found.
    • Pit burial foreground
    • Excavated human bone
    • Current appearance
    Baekhyeon-dong (currently Korea District Heating Corp.) square-block tomb can largely be divided into three parts: the central pit burial, the square wall surrounding the pit burial and the stone-lined remains in the east wall. The pit burial is 270㎝ long, 140㎝ wide, and 240㎝, with a niche found inside the southern wall.
    From the niche were excavated a set of bronze spoon and chopsticks, a set of human bones from the ground, and tweezers and ear swab from the waist part of the human bones. The wall is rectangular with three layers 80㎝ wide, out 760㎝ to the east and west and 560㎝ to the north and south centering on the central tomb hole. In the front of the wall, small masonry works are located, and there are traces of where a tombstone and incense-burner stone were placed on the central part. Stone-lined remains that form the boundaries of the grave with the walls have the south and north in contact, so the faces were adjusted to the outskirts and piled in one layer. The date is presumed to be from the Goryeo period.